It seems intelligent enhancement of image detail is currently high on the agenda at Google. Recently the company brought its RAISR smart image upsampling to Android devices. Now, the Google Brain team has developed a system that uses neural networking to enhance detail in low-resolution images.
The system uses a two-step approach, with a conditioning network first attempting to map 8×8 source images against similar images with a higher resolution and creating an approximation of what the enhanced image might look like. In a second step, the prior network adds realistic detail to the final output image. It does so by learning what each pixel in a low-resolution image generally corresponds to in higher-res files.