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Simple example of how first order interpolation can be done, circles indicate 'output' pixels.
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Uploaded: May 28, 2015 (UTC)
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Note that this is the SIMPLEST possible sort of interpolation, each pixel using four sub-pixels.

A slightly more advanced one could be by using the centre of each sub-pixel and using 3x3 subpixels

A slightly more advanced one -and denser- could be by using the centre of each cell boundary and 4 subpixels, preferably turning the grid 45 degrees (The fujifilm approach) This gives the double number of output pixels per sub-pixel (or seen the other way round larger input per output), but of course this means the same information is used several times, that is in fact a lowpass filter, as centre of the furthers subpixel used, would thus be ½√5 and not √½ away, that is roughly 1.6 times further away

May 29, 2015*