Canon SX10 IS
The asker may not have kept up with camera development and asks what in its day was a very pertinent question. I was involved in the now defunct but wonderful S5IS user forum when the SX10 came on the scene, and everybody was interested in the often significant investments they had made in enhancements for their beloved S3s and S5s.
I've still got both S5 and SX10 in good working order. The answer to the question is "no", the big difference between the two with regard to lenses is that the S5 lens adapter mounts to the camera body and therefore supports substantial lens weight.
The adapter for the SX10 is like all the successor models: it is a skinny ring that mounts to the end of the long zoom lens and while SX10 can support filters it cannot support heavy lenses. Of course, the 20X zoom and wider angle of the SX10 (and later models) gives it better range than the S5 had. But folks who own lenses want to use them.
The asker might have the opportunity to replace a non-working S5 with an SX10 for little money, and I'll say the image quality of both is quite good. SX10 has less noise at marginally higher ISO, but the "slow lens" - the way the aperture closes down as the lens zooms out - is a real shock. On ano overcast day you need a tripod for the SX10 at the same focal length you can handhold the S5. That remains true for successors up to and including the SX50.
The S5 is far more forgiving in low light, especially using CHDK's RAW/DNG and other features, and great things were done with it using extension lenses in its day.