# Lenses for photographing people...

Started Apr 8, 2013 | Discussions thread
Re: Lenses for photographing people...
1

OniMirage wrote:

clengman wrote:

clengman wrote:

The full frame equivalent of ideal focal length for portraits is < 50mm. It has only to do with rendering the subject accurately without distortion. That's it.

This is bull. First, where do you come up with "less than 50mm?" Second, what's your definition of rendering accurately? If you take a head shot with a 14mm lens, the camera just recorded exactly what that subject looks like from that distance. That is an accurate rendering. The features may appear distorted relative to the image you have of that person in your mind's eye, but if you put your eye at the same distance that the camera was when you took that head shot at 14mm, your eye will see the same "distortion" that the camera did.

You're talking about aesthetics, not accuracy. The camera is always accurate. The human eye/brain combination applies all sorts of non-optical a priori information before presenting the "perception" that you think you are "seeing".

Um the opening in the symbol is greater than.

http://www.mathsisfun.com/equal-less-greater.html

Distortion...

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wide-angle_lens

The camera captures a flat plane, a lens adds focal length, a lens is not perfect and can add distortion. In the case of wide angles this can be bad up close for portraits if you intend to be try and capture a faithful head shot for instance.

Sorry buddy that's a "less than" as in 5 < 10.

Quote from the link I gave you, math is fun:

Changing Sides

We saw in that previous example that when we change sides we flipped the symbol as well.

This:   Becky Spends > \$0 (Becky spends greater than \$0) is the same as this:   \$0 < Becky Spends (\$0 is less than what Becky spends)

... I added no value less than 50 the symbol to represent nothing is 0 therefore anything between 1 and 49.

Just make sure the small end points to the small value!

This: < is a "greater than" symbol in the same way that this: p is a "lower case Q".

Let 's take the example that you provided above. The statement is comparing two values. The first is "the amount of money Becky spends." The second is "\$0." Let's assume that the first statement is true ("Becky spends > \$0" OR "Becky spends greater than zero dollars."). If we reverse the statement and reverse the symbol this new statement will also be true ("\$0 < Becky spends" OR "\$0 is less than the amount Becky spends."), but please note that reversing the direction of the symbol also changes the meaning of the symbol.

In your original statement, "The full frame equivalent of ideal focal length for portraits is < 50mm," you are comparing two values. The first value is "the ideal focal length for portraits." The second value is "50mm." The only correct way to read your statement is "the ideal focal length for portraits is less than 50mm."

You're right that you should just be sure the small end points to the smaller number. In your case the small end pointed to "the ideal focal length for portraits" implying that this number was smaller than 50mm. I hope that clears that up.

Wikipedia:

The focal length of a lens determines the magnification at which it images distant objects. It is equal to the distance between the image plane and a pinhole that images distant objects the same size as the lens in question. For rectilinear lenses (that is, with no image distortion), the imaging of distant objects is well modelled as a pinhole camera model.[3] This model leads to the simple geometric model that photographers use for computing the angle of view of a camera; in this case, the angle of view depends only on the ratio of focal length to film size. In general, the angle of view depends also on the distortion.

Rectilinear lens

In photography, a rectilinear lens is a photographic lens that yields images where straight features, such as the walls of buildings, appear with straight lines, as opposed to being curved. In other words, it is a lens with little or no barrel or pincushion distortion. At particularly wide angles, however, the rectilinear perspective will cause objects to appear increasingly stretched and enlarged as they near the edge of the frame. These types of lenses are often used to create forced perspective effects.

So I suppose a stretched face isn't distorted?

Distorted relative to what? Like I said already, if you take a head shot using a 14mm lens (For the purposes of this thought experiment, place the subject's nose in the center of the frame.) then replace the camera with your head, then look straight ahead with the subject's nose centered in your field of vision. (You will have to use your peripheral vision to see the same angle of view captured by the camera.) the perspective you see with your eye will be the same as the perspective captured by the camera.

If you took the image captured by the camera and printed it and displayed it so that the print covered the same real angle of view in your field of vision as the angle of view represented in the print, it would look almost identical to your perception of the subject when you put your face all up in your subject's face. (I say almost identical because there are aspects of your perception resulting from parallax and binocular vision that obviously wouldn't be present.)

The reason that people think that wider angle lenses introduce "perspective distortion" is that the the image that you have in your mind of a particular person is a composite, an average. You see faces from varying distances, and your mind sums up all these views with all the accompanying changes in perspective and averages them out. When most people recall a face, they see the face as it would appear from maybe 10 or 15 feet away. (Ken Rockwell has a little article that discusses this briefly here. I don't know if I agree necessarily with a specific number of "15 feet" as he states, but the general idea is valid. I think it'd be interesting to learn if someone has studied this. It would certainly be possible to design an experiment to arrive at an average "natural viewing distance" for a group of individuals.)

Anyway, you don't commonly look at faces from a distance of less than around 3 feet, so when you get into focal lengths that require a subject distance of less than this for head and shoulders framing, the subject starts to look a little unusual, but like I said already, this has nothing to do with "accuracy of rendering" or any kind of optical distortion introduced by the lens. This is only a result of the subject distance and angle of view. A rectilinear lens (with no barrel distortion) records an accurate rectilinear projection of a scene. When you "see" (and I'm speaking here of your field of vision, including your peripheral vision, as you look at a point straight ahead) what you are seeing is essentially a rectilinear projection. If you spend some time trying to see this way (Look straight ahead as you're walking around town, but try to pay attention to the appearance of objects in your peripheral field of view as you pass them. Try not to actually direct your gaze upon them.) you'll realize that things at the edges and corners of your visual field really do start to look stretched out as they come closer to you.

The camera's position relative to the subject can give the appearance of distortion. People think that focal length adds distortion because you have to move closer to the subject for equal framing with a wider lens compared to a longer lens. That's it.

And this is different.

As I tried to explain above, it really isn't different.

A rectilinear lens with no barrel distortion just records a rectilinear projection of the scene in front of it.

Perceived "perspective distortion" is purely a result of 1) recording an image from a vantage point closer than what one is accustomed to seeing, or 2) including subject matter from a wide field of view that one might not normally pay attention to because it is at the extreme periphery of the individual's field of vision.

Your distance relative to the subject while keeping the same framing gives a different look to the image. Wider angles tend to distort the image more and more the wider it gets. 50mm and above are typically less likely to exhibit this behavior giving a more accurate representation of your subject.

clengman's gear list:clengman's gear list
Olympus PEN E-PL1 Olympus E-M1 Olympus M.Zuiko Digital ED 14-42mm 1:3.5-5.6 Olympus Zuiko Digital ED 70-300mm 1:4.0-5.6 Olympus M.Zuiko Digital ED 40-150mm 1:4-5.6 +6 more
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