September 19
Fujifilm improves X-Pro1 focusing with updated Firmware 2.0

Fujifilm has released firmware version 2 for the X-Pro1 mirrorless camera, that it promised before Photokina. The update improves aspects of the camera's operation that we criticised in our review, most notably focusing, both auto and manual. Firmware updates for each of the lenses are also required, and downloadable from Fujifilm's website. We've quickly tested the firmware and seen substantial improvements in both manual focus operation and autofocus speed - indeed we'd recommend all X-Pro1 owners install it. Click through for more details.

Sir Jonathan Ive to design one-of-a-kind Leica M rangefinder

Leica has announced that it is in discussions with Sir Jonathan Ive - chief designer at Apple - about designing a unique, one-of-a-kind version of its new M rangefinder. In a statement to the British Journal of Photography, Leica has confirmed that the intention is for the resulting camera to be auctioned for charity in summer 2013. Sir Jonathan Ive is one of the most well-known industrial designers in the world, and is responsible for the design of some of Apple's most iconic products, including the iMac and iPhone.

Photokina 2012: Samsung Stand Report
Big, blue and very very connected. That's Samsung in 2012, and the Korean electronics giant has a large stand at this year's photokina, the better to showcase its range of compact and interchangeable lens cameras, all of which feature Wi-Fi connectivity.
Photokina 2012: Interview - Jesko von Oeynhausen of Leica

Photokina 2012 is proving a busy show for Leica, with two new M models, the 'M', which succeeds the M9, and offers live view and movie mode, among other refinements, and the ME - a cut-down model, which offers the same functionality as the M9 at a more affordable price. Barnaby Britton caught up with M product manager Jesko von Oeynhausen at the Leica stand.

September 18
Think Tank announces 'pilot's case' and messenger-style camera bags

Bag maker Think Tank has announced two new products. The Airport Navigator is a rolling pilot's case that allows access to your gear from both the top and front. It is designed to hold two pro-size bodies and three to six lenses, two flash units, an iPad and laptop. The company has also announced a new line of CityWalker messenger-style shoulder bags. These come in three sizes, each capable of holding a standard-size camera body and medium range zoom. Both the Airport Navigator and CityWalker bags are to be released in November.

Modifying a Holga DSLR lens to really be f/8
Illustrated instructions for removing the sieve and aperture plates from the Holga lens for DSLR. Includes sample pictures and discussion of what the modified lens delivers.
Google acquires Nik Software with focus on mobile users

Google has acquired Nik Software, the San Diego-based maker of standalone and plug-in image editing tools. While Nik has a wide portfolio of products for photographers, industry insiders agree that the impetus behind the move was to acquire Snapseed, Nik's mobile image editing and sharing app. In light of Facebook's earlier acquisition of the highly popular Instagram app, the acquisition of one of its rivals is seen as an effort to make Google+ more attractive to mobile photographers. Financial terms have not been disclosed but Google's Senior Vice President of Engineering has stated the company's committment to Nik's plugins and high-end software.

Photokina 2012: Pentax Ricoh Stand Report
This is the first Photokina for the unified Pentax Ricoh with a stand in hall 2 of the Cologne Messe complex.
Photokina 2012: Olympus Stand Report
The OM-D is grabbing all of the attention at Olympus stand. It's those same customers Olympus is hoping to entice with its 17mm F1.8 lens, which we tracked-down a prototype of.
Sony and Hasselblad announce partnership with DSLR on the horizon

Sony and Hasselblad have announced a partnership that will result in an E-mount camera, a compact camera and a product for the DSLR segment. Hasselblad says the aim of the partnership is to 'cultivate new markets for photo enthusiasts and consumer digital imaging products' and will begin with an E-mount camera, called the Hasselblad Lunar. The use of the words 'DSLR segment' implicity doesn't rule-out the possibility that Hasselblad will adopt Sony's SLT system (or simply re-brand one of its models).

Hasselblad announces 24MP Lunar - an 'ultimate luxury' mirrorless camera

Photokina 2012: Hasselblad plans to release a mirrorless interchangeable lens camera utilizing Sony's E-Mount. The Hasselblad Lunar, which is expected to cost around €5000 (~$6500) appears to share a lot of technology with Sony's recent NEX-7 model, including the same 24.3MP CMOS sensor, OLED 'True Finder' EVF, and the 'TriNavi' navigation system. The Lunar, which is set for launch in the first quarter of 2013, will be available 'in a choice of standard models plus a variety of exclusive hand grips and precious materials on special order.' [Updated with images of mockups]

Photokina 2012: Canon Stand Report
Canon has been busy this year, and the demonstration areas are thronged with enthusiasts keen to get their hands on Canon's latest products including the mirrorless EOS M and the 6D - Canon's most affordable full-frame DSLR yet.
Photokina 2012: Nikon Stand Report
Nikon has a large, and very yellow presence at this year's show, and the Japanese manufacturer has a lot to show off. 2012 has been a busy year for Nikon, and crowds several people deep are lining up to get their hands on the latest releases, including the recently-released D600.
Photokina 2012: Leica Stand Report
Leica announced quite a few cameras at this Photokina, but it's the M that's getting all the attention.
Photokina 2012: Panasonic Stand Report
Panasonic occupies a large stand in hall 3 at this year's Photokina, with the new Lumix GH3 being the star of the show.
September 17
Leica announces S-System 37MP medium format body and lenses

Photokina 2012: Leica has announced its latest S series medium format camera body. The new model retains its predecessor's 37.5MP resolution but has improved image processing, a sensitivity  range of ISO 100-1600, a 2GB image buffer and 166MB/s transfer rate. A new predictive AF system and 920k dot resolution rear LCD panel round out the highlights, along with an internal GPS module. The camera will be available in December for a retail price of US $21,950. Three new lenses for the system have also been announced; the Super-Elmar-S 24 mm f/3.5 ASPH, Vario-Elmar-S 30-90 mm f/3.5-5.6 ASPH and TS-APO- Elmar-S 120 mm f/5.6 ASPH. tilt/shift lens.

Leica announces V-Lux 4 superzoom with F2.8 lens

Photokina 2012: Leica has revealed the V-Lux 4 - a 24X superzoom with an impressive constant F2.8 lens and high-resolution electronic viewfinder. That fast lens means that it should be easier to capture high-quality images at the full extent of the zoom, without having to use high ISO settings. It also has a 1.3m dot equivalent electronic viewfinder and a 460k dot, 3" articulated screen. The V-Lux 4 can also shoot at 12 frames per second and can capture 1080p video at 60fps or 720p at up to 120fps.

Leica reveals D-Lux 6 fast-lensed enthusiast compact

Leica has announced the D-Lux 6 - a fast-lensed compact designed for enthusiast photographers. It's Leica's reworking of the Panasonic Lumix DMC-LX7, and shares that model's key features; a super-fast F1.4-2.3 24-90mm equivalent lens in front of a 10.1MP 1/1.7" CMOS sensor. It has an aperture ring around the lens, records FullHD movies at 60fps, and accepts a high resolution plug-in electronic viewfinder, the EVF3.

Leica announces 'M' 24MP live view full-frame CMOS rangefinder with movies

Photokina 2012: Leica has announced its latest M series rangefinder - the 24MP CMOS Leica M. The company says all future M models will also simply be called the 'M'. The latest model (referred to as 'Typ 240') becomes the first of its rangefinders to feature live view, and offers a choice of magnified view or focus peaking for precise through-the-lens focusing, allowing Leica to promise compatibilty with R-mount lenses. It also becomes the first M capable of movie shooting - capturing 1080p footage at 25 or 24 frames per second. It includes a 920k dot LCD with smartphone-style Gorilla Glass cover, and accepts the same plug-in EVF as used by the X2. Availability is scheduled for early 2013 with a retail price of $6,950 in the US and £5100 in the UK.

Leica announces the M-E, a stripped-down 18MP full-frame rangefinder

Photokina 2012: Leica has announced a more affordable rangefinder: the Leica M-E. Built around the familiar full-frame 18MP CCD, the company describes the M-E as being a stripped-back camera, offering just the basics required for photography. Its core specifications are essentially the same as the M9's, including an ISO range of 160-2500, 0.68x magnification viewfinder, and the same 230k dot 2.5" screen. It'll be available from Leica dealers later this month with a retail price of $5,450 in the US and £3900 in the UK.

Lexar announces 256GB SDXC UHS-1 card

Lexar has announced its Professional 256GB SDXC UHS-I memory card, offering the industry's highest storage capacity to date in an SDXC card. In addition to providing longer recording times for HD video capture, the Class 10 card offers a guaranteed read speed of 60MB/s, enabling faster transfers of video files and high resolution images to a computer. It will become available in October with a retail price of  $899.99 in the US and £670.99 in the UK.

Sigma launches three lenses, one in each of newly branded product categories

Photokina 2012: Sigma has announced it will brand its lenses in three categories and has introduced a new lens in each of the categories. The 'Contemporary' range will cover compact, flexible zooms, such as the new, smaller 17-70mm F2.8-4 DC OS Macro designed for APS-C DSLRs. The 'Art' range will include lenses such as primes, wide-angles and macros, and a new 35mm F1.4 DG HSM covering a full-frame imaging circle. Finally, the 'Sports' range will encompass Sigma's telephoto primes, telephoto zooms and superzooms, such as the new 120-300mm F2.8 DG OS HSM.

Samsung announces 12-24mm F4 and 45mm F1.8 lenses for NX

Photokina 2012: Samsung has announced two lenses for its NX mirrorless camera system, a 12-24mm F4-5.6 ultra-wideangle zoom and a 45mm F1.8 short telephoto prime. With angles of view equivalent to 18.5-37mm and 69mm respectively, both are billed by Samsung as lightweight and portable, and feature the company's unique i-Function control system. The 45mm also uses a stepper motor for fast and quiet autofocus.

Phase One and Mamiya Leaf reveal 645DF+ autofocus medium format camera

Photokina 2012: Phase One has announced the 645DF+ camera platform and Schneider Kreuznach 28mm LS f/4.5 Aspherical lens. The 645DF+ supports more than 50 digital backs and 80 lenses and can be used both with a focal plane or leaf shutter lenses, leading Phase One to call it 'the world's more versatile camera platform for high end photography.' The 645DF+, which will also be sold under the Mamiya brand name by Mamiya Leaf, can shoot at shutter speeds of up to 1/4000th of a second and can sync with strobes at up to 1/1600th with leaf-shutter lenses such as the Schneider 28mm. The lens offers a 102° field-of-view (equivalent to around 17.5mm in 135 terms) and will focus down to 35cm. The camera and lens command prices of around $5990/€4290 each and will both be available from October 2012.

Panasonic promises 42.5mm F1.2 and 150mm F2.8 lenses for 2013/2014

Photokina 2012: Panasonic has promised two new lenses for its Lumix G Micro Four Thirds system, a fast 42.5mm F1.2 'portrait' lens and a 150mm F2.8 telephoto. Both lenses will include optical image stabilization, but there are no further details at present. Both are slated for release in 2013-2014.

Panasonic announces DMC-GH3 high-end movie-focused mirrorless camera

Photokina 2012: Panasonic has unveiled the DMC-GH3, its most movie-orientated Micro Four Thirds camera yet. The GH3 is built around a new 16MP sensor, which the company promises will offer improved image quality. In addition the camera, which now features a larger and weather-sealed magnesium alloy body, is packed with videographer-friendly features. These include 3.5mm mic and headphone sockets, 60p/60i/30p/24p output, All-I or IPB compression options (at up to 80 or 50 Mbps respectively) and timecode support. There will also be the option of a battery grip to allow shooting for longer periods.

Panasonic announces Lumix G X 35-100mm F2.8 fast telezoom

Photokina 2012: Panasonic has formally announced the Lumix G X 35-100mm F2.8 lens, a fast telephoto zoom for Micro Four Thirds cameras such as the co-announced DMC-GH3. The metal body is dust- and splash-proof to match the GH3, and both zoom and focus are internal. The lens also features 'Power OIS' optical image stabilization, and uses Panasonic's Nano Surface Coating to minimize flare and ghosting.

Just Posted: Panasonic Lumix DMC-GH3 preview

Just Posted: Our Panasonic Lumix DMC-GH3 preview. The GH3 builds on the success Panasonic had with its GH2. With more rugged magnesium alloy construction and a new 16MP sensor, it offers plenty for stills photographers but it's the video specifications that make it a stand-out. Panasonic has been asking video professionals what they wanted out of a camera. Is the GH3 the camera they've been asking for? Read our hands-on preview to find out.

Just Posted: Olympus PEN E-PL5 and E-PM2 preview, with E-PL5 samples

Just Posted: Our hands-on preview of the Olympus PEN E-PL5 and PEN E-PM2. The two baby PENs, the Lite and Mini have done a good job of offering some of the least exensive mirrorless cameras on the market but have, until now, relied on an ageing 12MP sensor. Now the OM-D's 16MP sensor makes its way into both the latest PEN Lite (the E-PL5) and the PEN Mini (the E-PM2). They also gain touch screens and a series of other updates. Read our preview to find out more, which includes a small gallery of real-world samples from the E-PL5.

Olympus refreshes PENS with E-PL5 and E-PM2 touch-screen 16MP mirrorless models

Photokina 2012: Olympus has refreshed its PEN series with the PEN Lite E-PL5 and PEN Mini E-PM2 16MP touch-screen mirrorless cameras. Both models feature the 16MP sensor and TruePic VI image processor first seen in the OM-D E-M5. Both cameras also gain 460,000 dot, touch-sensitive rear LCDs, with the ability to focus and shoot by touching the screen. They can also shoot at 8 frames per second. The E-PL5 offers a mode dial, an extra button, flip-up LCD and E-P3-style screw-on front grip over the PEN Mini. The E-PL5 will cost $699 with the 14-42mm retractable zoom, while the E-PM2 will cost $599 with the same lens.

Olympus creates XZ-2 iHS fast lens, CMOS enthusiast compact camera

Photokina 2012: Olympus has unveiled the XZ-2 enthusiast compact camera with a 12MP 1/1.7" back-illumination CMOS sensor and touch-screen. The XZ-2 features the same 28-112mm equivalent F1.8-2.5 lens as the XZ-1 but adds a more modern sensor, screw-on hand grips, tilting touch-screen and a two-mode control dial around the lens. In one mode the dial features click-stops, allowing control over discrete features such as aperture or exposure compensation, but flip the switch on the front of the camera and the ring rotates smoothly, and switches to controlling zoom or manual focus. The XZ-2 will sell for around $599/£479.99.

Olympus creates 60mm F2.8 Macro and promises 17mm F1.8 for Micro Four Thirds

Photokina 2012: Olympus has launched two lenses for the Micro Four Thirds system, including the M.Zuiko Digital ED 60mm 1:2.8 Macro, and announced it is developing a 17mm F1.8 fast prime. It has also made an unusual 15mm F8 'body cap lens' that's just 9mm thick. The final lens is a special edition black version of its existing high-end 12mm F2.0 prime. The 60mm Macro will cost around $499/£429, and the black 12mm F2.0 will be $1099/£849.

Just Posted: Hands-on Canon EOS 6D preview

Just Posted: Our hands-on preview of Canon's enthusiast-grade full frame DSLR, the EOS 6D. The 6D features a newly-developed 20.2MP CMOS sensor and a magnesium alloy body. To distinguish it from the more expensive 5D Mark III, the 6D features a simpler, 11-point AF system with a single cross-type focus sensor. It also features a smaller, 97% coverage viewfinder. What do these, and a handful of other, omissions mean for the 6D and how to it match up to Nikon's D600? Read our hands-on preview to find out.

Just Posted: Canon PowerShot G15 preview

Just Posted: Our Canon PowerShot G15 hands-on preview. It would have been easy to assume the small-sensor PowerShot G series was at an end when Canon introduced the 1.5" sensor G1 X, but the G15 continues the 1/1.7" sensor tradition and looks back to the series' beginnings with the addition of a bright lens. The 28-140mm equivalent, F1.8-2.8 lens offers a pretty impressive specification in anyone's book (it's over a stop brighter than the G12, all the way through the range). So is the camera to stand up to the enthusiast camera onslaught? Read our preview to find out our early thoughts.

Just posted: Canon Powershot S110 hands-on preview

Just Posted: Our Canon PowerShot S110 hands-on preview. Canon's latest enthusiast 'shirt-pocket' compact looks very similar to last year's S100, but gains a touchscreen and built-in WiFi connectivity at the expense of its predecessor's GPS. But the S110 is entering a more-crowded market place, with larger-sensored rivals now available. So what does it offer to stay competitive? Read our preview to find out more about it.

Canon announces EOS 6D enthusiast-level Wi-Fi capable full-frame DSLR

Photokina 2012: Canon has announced the EOS 6D, a smaller, lighter and more affordable full frame DSLR for enthusiast photographers. The 20.2MP camera uses a newly-developed sensor and features an 11-point autofocus system with a single cross-type sensor. Canon says it will focus in lower light than any of its previous cameras. The 6D becomes the company's first EOS model to include GPS and Wi-Fi, to make sharing images easier. It uses its large sensor to offer a native ISO range of 100-25,600, expandable to 50-102,400.

Canon releases PowerShot G15 with fast lens and SX50 HS 50x superzoom

Photokina 2012: Canon has refreshed its G-series enthusiast compact with the G15, and created the implausible SX50 HS. The G15 is a successor to the G12 and is built around a 12MP, 1/1.7" CMOS sensor. Its lens also gets an upgrade - retaining its 28-140mm range but now with a maximum aperture of F1.8-2.8. It loses the G12's articulated screen but gains a higher-resolution, 920k dot panel. Meanwhile the SX50 HS features a remarkable 24-1200mm equivalent 50x zoom, thanks to its smaller 1/2.3" CMOS sensor.

Canon updates S series with PowerShot S110 12MP Wi-Fi enthusiast compact

Photokina 2012: Canon updates its S series with the PowerShot S110. The S110 is a gentle refresh of the S100, gaining Wi-Fi capability and a touchscreen, alongside an updated 12MP CMOS sensor. It retains the stabilized 24-100mm equivalent, F2.0-5.9 zoom, Digic 5 processor and GPS capability from its predecessor. The only visual change from the S100 is the loss of the ridge grip on the camera's front. The S110 will cost around $449 and will be available in black or white.

Just Posted: Hands-on Fujifilm XF1 preview

Just Posted: Our Fujifilm XF1 hands-on preview. Fujifilm has starting making cameras worth taking seriously with its X-series, both at the compact camera and interchangeable lens end of the spectrum. The XF1 uses the 2/3"-type sensor from the XS1 and X10, and builds it into an attractive, retro-styled compact body with a usefully fast lens that includes a retracting mechanical zoom ring. How does it stack up against its rivals? Read our preview to find out.

Fujifilm extends X-series with XF1 12MP pocketable enthusiast compact

Photokina 2012: Fujifilm has launched the XF1, a 12MP pocketable enthusiast compact camera. The XF1 features classic styling, a 25-100mm equivalent, F1.8-4.9 image-stabilized lens and a fairly large 2/3" CMOS sensor. The XF1 uses Fujifilm's EXR technology to offer improved noise or dynamic range modes at 6MP output. The camera features aluminium construction with a synthetic leather grip in one of three colors, and has a unique retracting mechanical zoom ring. Fujifilm promises fast response times and rapid focusing.

September 15
SLR Magic to show four prototype lenses at Photokina

Photokina 2012: Hong Kong lens maker SLR Magic will be showing four prototype lenses for mirrorless cameras at Photokina - 25mm T0.95, 35mm T0.95, 35mm T1.4, and 23mm F1.7 designs. The SLR Magic HyperPrime 23mm F1.7 has been completely redesigned from the previous version, and will be introduced in February 2013 at an MSRP of US$399 in Micro Four Thirds, Sony E and Fujifilm X mounts. The SLR Magic CINE 35mm T1.4 will be made in the same mounts, and go on sale in December 2012 for US$279. Meanwhile the 25mm T0.95 and 35mm T0.95 are based on the existing 50mm T0.95 design, and will cost US $649 and US $1,249 respectively. All will feature manual focus and aperture control.

September 14
Samyang to show 10mm F2.8 wideangle prime for APS-C at Photokina

Photokina 2012: Samyang has announced that it will be showing a protoype of a 10mm 1:2.8 ED AS UMC CS lens at Photokina. With its 15mm-equivalent, 110 degree angle of view, it will be the widest-angle rectilinear prime lens for APS-C/DX format SLRs. As usual for Samyang, focusing will be manual only. The lens is expected to go on sale towards the end of 2012.

Just Posted: Sony Alpha SLT-A57 review

Just Posted: Our review of the Sony Alpha SLT-A57. The A57 replaces the A55 which co-launched Sony's translucent fixed-mirror SLT lineup. While the A57 retains the same 16MP resolution of its predecessor, it inherits an impressive host of features from more recent NEX and SLT models. A 10fps full resolution burst mode, manual focus 'peaking' and class-leading 1080p60 video headline the specs of a beginner-friendly DSLR that, on paper, stacks up very well against the competition. At a street price of $700 with kit lens, is the A57 a compelling alternative for users looking for an affordable and versatile DSLR? Read our in-depth review to find out.

September 13
Just Posted: Nikon D600 real-world sample images [UPDATED]

Just Posted: Sample images from the Nikon D600 24MP full frame DSLR. We got the chance to go shooting with the D600 in New York and have prepared a real world preview samples gallery. We grabbed a series of shots covering a range of subjects in a variety of lighting conditions to give a taste of the camera's image quality. As always original, out-of-camera, JPEGs can be downloaded for closer examination. We hope to add to the gallery as soon as we get some more time. [Updated with full ISO range series]

Tamron creates SP 70-200mm F/2.8 Di VC USD with ultrasonic focus

Photokina 2012: Tamron has announced the SP 70-200mm F/2.8 Di VC USD, a fast telephoto zoom lens that features optical image stabilization and an ultrasonic-type autofocus motor. Designed for both full frame and APS-C cameras, it's billed as the smallest in its class. It features moisture-resistant construction, and has a circular aperture diaphragm for pleasing rendition of out-of-focus backgrounds. It'll be available in Canon, Nikon and Sony mounts towards the end of 2012, but pricing is not yet available.

Just Posted: Hands-on Nikon D600 preview

Just Posted: Our hands-on Nikon D600 preview. The D600 is the much-rumored, long-awaited and much-in-demand enthusiast-level full-frame DSLR. The D600 combines a 24MP full-frame sensor with a feature set that seems to build from the familiar and well-regarded technologies on the D7000. It also gains a dash of D800, for substantially less money. We've been getting-to-grips with the D600 for a while and have prepared a hands-on preview article, looking at exactly what the D600 offers for $2100/£1955/€2149.

Nikon announces D600 24MP enthusiast full-frame DSLR

Photokina 2012: Nikon has announced the D600, the smallest, least expensive full frame DSLR on the market, aimed directly at enthusiast photographers. The D600 is built around a 24MP, 36x24mm, CMOS sensor and crams many of the features of the more expensive D800 into a distinctly D7000-esque body. It features a 100% coverage viewfinder and 39-point autofocus system, nine of which are cross-type points. It can capture 1080p HD video at 30, 25 or 24 frames per second and can stream uncompressed footage out over its HDMI port. There's also an optional Wi-Fi unit allowing the camera to be controlled remotely from an Android or iOS device. The D600 will have a list price of $2,099 body only, or $2,699 with the 24-85mm F3.5-5.6 lens and will be available from September 18th.

Nikon creates 18.5mm F1.8 fast prime lens for 1 system mirrorless cameras

Nikon has announced the 1 Nikkor 18.5mm F1.8 fast 'normal' prime lens for its 1 system mirrorless cameras. The 18.5mm lens offers a field of view equivalent to that of a 50mm lens on a full-frame camera. Its wide maximum aperture makes it easier to get the most out of the 1 system cameras in low light and to produce shallow depth-of-field images. The lens will be available in black, white or silver, at a cost of around $189.95.

September 12
iPhone 5 vs. iPhone 4S: Image comparison

Apple has shared a gallery of images from the new iPhone 5, one of which particularly caught our eye. Dpreview’s own Scott Everett just recently traveled to Big Sur in California, capturing with his iPhone 4S a nearly identical image of the coastline as that which Apple shared today in the iPhone 5 sample gallery. We thought we’d post the two side-by-side so that you can compare results from the iPhone 4S with those from the iPhone 5 yourself. We also take a look at the EXIF data for some interesting observations about sensor size and a new lower ISO.

Apple reveals iPhone 5 with updated camera - here's what you need to know

Apple unveiled the highly anticipated iPhone 5 featuring an updated 8-megapixel backlit CMOS sensor, durable sapphire glass lens cover and larger, 4", 16:9 screen. A more powerful A6 processor allows improved noise reduction, 40 percent faster capture and improved low-light performance through a 'dynamic low light mode' that Apple isn't giving further details of. Now that it’s here, you probably want to know: is it worthy of the hype? Read on for more news on that larger screen.