In strict photographic terms, "macro" means the optical ability to produce a 1:1 or higher magnification of an object on the film or sensor. For instance if you photograph a flower with an actual diagonal of 21.6 mm so that it fills the 35mm film frame (43.3mm diagonal), the flower gets magnified with a ratio of 43.3 to 21.6 or 2:1, or with a magnification of 2X. Macro photography typically deals with magnifications between 1:1 and 50:1 (1X to 50X), while close up photography ranges from 1:1 to 1:10 (1X to 1/10X).
From the above it is easy to understand that digital cameras with sensors smaller than 35mm film have better macro capabilities. Indeed, a digital compact camera with a focal length multiplier of 4X can capture the above flower of 21.6mm diameter with a magnification of only 1:2 (close-up) instead of the 2:1 (macro) required with the 35mm camera. In other words, macro results are achieved with (easier) close-up photography.
On digital cameras there is often a Macro Focus mode which switches the auto focus system to attempt to focus on subjects much closer to the lens.
We measure macro ability (of cameras with non-interchangeable lenses) in our reviews as the ability of the lens to get the best possible frame coverage. So a camera which can fill the frame with a subject that is 20mm wide has better macro capabilities than one which can only capture a 40mm wide subject.
Generation after generation, Nikon Coolpix digital cameras delivered the 'best in class' macro performance without add-on lenses.
This article is written by Vincent Bockaert,
author of The 123 of digital imaging Interactive Learning Suite
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