10 essential time-saving Photoshop tips

Fast, fluent editing

One of the hallmarks of mastery is the ability to get more done with less effort. It can be a treat to watch somebody work with a tool or do an activity that they are truly fluent in - no superfluous movement or wasted energy.

I've been using Photoshop since version 3, released back in 1994; my copy came on seven 3.5" floppy discs just like this (that's actually pretty impressive, considering that those seven floppies would only fit one reasonably high-quality mp3 today). Despite having almost 20 years of experience with Photoshop, I am constantly learning new ways to improve my productivity with the software. 

In this article, I'll share 10 shortcut tips and tricks that I use every day to streamline my workflow. The goal of these shortcuts is to allow editing to progress in a smooth, uninterrupted fashion. Whenever I need to click into a menu - or, worse, dock my stylus in order to type something with both hands - it's like hitting a speed bump. It kills my productivity.

To maintain efficiency, I keep one hand on the mouse or tablet stylus as much as possible, and use the other hand to update tools, settings or contexts via keyboard shortcuts - I call this "fluent editing."

Here are the shortcuts that I find most useful, along with tips for combining them in a fluent manner. While many of these shortcuts and techniques may be familiar to you already, they can be combined to minimize context switches for maximum efficiency.

1. Scrubby zoom

While using zoom (magnifying glass) tool: click and drag left or right

Scrubby zoom is a feature that some users find annoying until they start using the "fluent editing" (one hand to mouse / one hand to hotkey) approach. To use this feature: while using the zoom tool, click and hold the mouse button, then drag the mouse left to zoom out or right to zoom in - no extraneous clicks and no extra keys to zoom out. Just click and drag until you reach the appropriate zoom level.

To enable Scrubby Zoom, check the box in the Zoom tool's palette. You may also need to select "Enable OpenGL Drawing" under Preferences -> Performance.

2. Scrubby hand

In any tool, hold space bar and drag the image

I don't know if this feature has a proper name - I call it "scrubby hand" since it feels similar to scrubby zoom to me. Regardless of the name, it's incredibly useful when you're working on an image at a high zoom level.

Rather than mousing over to the scroll bars or switching to the hand tool to pan your image, just hold down the space bar - your pointer will turn into the "hand" tool icon; you can now simply click anywhere in the image (while continuing to hold the space bar) and move the visible part of the image, similarly to how you would move an image on a tablet or smartphone.

Imagine you were zoomed in to edit this small flyaway hair, which goes off the top of the screen. Without leaving the healing tool or mousing over to the scroll bars, simply hold space and click to pan the image with the scrubby hand to get the rest of the hair. 

3. Temporary tools

Hold any tool shortcut key

Let's say that you're using the paint brush tool to paint on a layer mask, and you want to change zoom level before continuing to paint.

The non-fluent approach requires 3 steps:

  1. Type (z) to switch to the magnifying glass
  2. Use scrubby zoom to change the zoom level
  3. Type (b) to go back to the brush tool

It's even worse if you're not yet familiar with the tool hotkeys.

The fluent approach: just hold down z and drag to use scrubby zoom.  When you release z, Photoshop will automatically return you to the brush tool.

This technique works for temporarily changing to any tool, not just zoom. Simply hold down the hotkey for the tool you wish to use temporarily.

4. New layer

With options dialogue: Ctrl+Shift+N / Cmd+Shift+N

Without options dialogue: Ctrl+Shift+Alt+N / Cmd+Shift+Option+N

On many of the images I edit, this is the first command I execute. I often start with a new empty layer for baseline retouching. I use a non-destructive editing workflow, which means that I make changes to my images in a way that allows the edits to be tweaked or reverted at a later time. This is useful for situations where you learn a better way of doing something, or the capabilities of the software you're using improve.

For example, after I started using the color blending mode to adjust odd skin tones, I was able to go back and update photos on which I'd originally used a less-effective combination of hue/saturation and curves adjustment layers, but I didn't have to start from scratch.

This layer stack contains many non-destructive edits, each on their own layer or adjustment layer.

Pro tip: when you're creating a large number of layers and adjustment layers, it can be very useful to give them meaningful names, such as "global contrast" or "dust spot retouch." Some of my more heavily massaged images can have 10 or more layers, so it's useful to have left yourself hints as to what's going on if you ever re-edit the image.

5. Merge stamp visible

Ctrl+Alt+Shift+E / Cmd+Shift+Option+E

Once you have a pile of layers and adjustment layers, it is sometimes necessary to composite them together (e.g., to apply a filter to the overall image). This command is a one-handed shortcut that creates a new layer comprised of all of the currently visible layers in your layer stack. I don't know how I survived before learning this one.

The selected layer was created with "merge stamp visible" in order to produce a composited base to apply a filter.

When using filters, I often find it useful to annotate the layer name with information about the filter settings used (in this case, Color Cast / Contrast / Dynamic Contrast values for Nik Software Color Efx Pro's "Pro Contrast" filter).

Keep reading for the next 5 tips!

The views and opinions expressed in this article are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views and opinions held by dpreview.com or any affiliated companies.


Total comments: 88
By wkay (2 months ago)

This is prattle of the dead. Useless.

By JWest (2 months ago)

The author is dead?!

By AKey (2 months ago)

We are all different and this is why photoshop is so good - there are 5 different ways and might be even 6 ways to do one thing. So you decide which way to go. But for me not to use shortcut is just like watch TV without remote control. You can pick up one shortcut a week. By the end of the year you have just plenty. And for the time you save go to the pub and have a Pint with friends rather than sitting at the computer.
thanks for the post. I didnot know about scrubby zoom. I zoom with scroll wheel.

1 upvote
Wolfgang Fieger
By Wolfgang Fieger (3 months ago)

10 quite superfluous "tips". That is just common user interface usage and as I said below, some of these "tips" aren't even the best way to do it.

Wolfgang Fieger
By Wolfgang Fieger (3 months ago)

1 + 3 is superfluous if you know that zooming can always be done with the mouse wheel! Absolutely no need for these shortcuts.

By JWest (2 months ago)

Tip 1 is an alternative way of zooming that some people might find more convenient. Tip 3 says right there, it "works for temporarily changing to any tool, not just zoom". Did you even read the article before you criticised it?

Comment edited 19 seconds after posting
By thomaspark (1 month ago)

That's fine and dandy if you're using a mouse. Many photographers edit with a tablet.

Russell Evans
By Russell Evans (3 months ago)

My tips would be:

Buy a cheap USB keyboard and a set of Photoshop keyboard stickers. about $23 total on Amazon. Plug in the "Photoshop" keyboard when you are using Photoshop.



If you have a smartphone or a tablet, download PSTools:

Watch the Russell Brown videos.

Guy 2
By Guy 2 (3 months ago)

I also use most of these already but they should be useful for the less experienced, my top tip is to buy a gaming mouse with programmamble buttons, you can save lots of time once you remember what tools you have programmed.
I do not understand why people waste their time writting negative comments, just move on..!

By Flair (3 months ago)

Thank you for these tips! Although I knew a few, others will be excellent new ways to use PS. I'm a bit shocked at all the troll posts - really? If you are so advanced in the use of PS, then perhaps you have better things to do with your time. Also, LR is lovely, but there's still loads of things that one needs PS in order to fine tune most images. Thanks again for taking the time to share your knowledge!

1 upvote
By Neodp (3 months ago)

My supporting points for why we need to rethink using this, and any Adobe products in the first place were politely removed due to length. The details were many, and explicit. It is quite relevant to your choices.

I was politely (and considerately) given the option to edit them into a moved (bigger) article elsewhere. I'm thankful for that politeness.

For brevity and time I choose instead to briefly inform readers, that my supporting points are removed from you here, and now also not there(by me). My time allotted for them is already spent. The separation is already effective.

By jjanny (3 months ago)

For zoom in and zoom out try alt+scroll (both mac and pc)!

By 4walls (3 months ago)

Ooh, I like that! Thanks.

AV Janus
By AV Janus (3 months ago)

Wow most useful change brush size.
Except 99% of people don ever use square bracket therefor don't know where it is! LOL!

How about Alt-mouse wheel, like LR Adobe? Some consistency please...

Erik Ohlson
By Erik Ohlson (3 months ago)

WOW - you would think that out of "10 essentials", there would be at least one that was actually useful.

What a wate.

1 upvote
By BaldCol (3 months ago)

A waste of what? Not useful to you. Useful to others. Another selfish DPR member.

Wolfgang Fieger
By Wolfgang Fieger (3 months ago)

These are not essential tips but just a few key short cuts. Some of them aren't even useful as the same can be done easier (like zooming via mouse wheel). If you are interested in Photoshop just take one of the many very good beginners guides out there. That is a universe more useful than tips like these

By JohnyP (3 months ago)

Not useful info (for me). another fail.

1 upvote
By BaldCol (3 months ago)

Why do you think that DPR should be tailored for your specific requirements?


Clyde Thomas
By Clyde Thomas (3 months ago)

I'm too busy to take a time saving tutorial.

oh wait

By Bearsdenoboe (3 months ago)

Thank you for sharing. Not all of us have the experience (or time in life) to have discovered the most useful shortcuts yet. This is very useful. More please!
Those who 'know it all', why come to such a site at all?

1 upvote
james _
By james _ (3 months ago)

Obviously we're all experts already fluent in our fields, god forbid there be some innocent enthusiasts looking to actually learn something.

People on this site get so full of themselves. This isn't a private website catered to you and only you. If it's too "basic for a site like this" then shouldn't you be well-versed enough for the title of the article to tip you off that you won't learn anything? After all, as a self-proclaimed expert in an expert community full of expert knowledge, "essential /tips" are probably things you already know, since, being an expert, you know all the essentials already.

Honestly. And people get so arrogant over comments too. Someone comments with "lol" or "bad don't like" and people go nuts over the simplicity. Hello, it's a higher-end photography site, but it's still the Internet. Not every comment has to be a sophisticated piece of literature offering a balanced, objective, insightful critique. Sometimes a comment can just be a comment.

By rkny (3 months ago)

Wow. Is there there another site on the internet with a more pompous, arrogant, rude, and self centered community than dpreview?

These tips are great starters. If you don't know them, use them. If you do know them, STFU.

By rfsIII (3 months ago)

Sorry pal, you want the beef, you gotta take the b--------t along with it. DPReview is No. 1 in all areas: really helpful impartial reviews, easy-to-follow technical articles, timely news, and disappointing comments.

By Taj123 (3 months ago)

Speak for yourself -we are not all experts

1 upvote
By pcblade (3 months ago)

neither we got Photoshop in first place...

1 upvote
By RBFresno (3 months ago)


1 upvote
By BobSC (3 months ago)

Here's an important interface trick that took me a while to figure out. Ctrl + and - zoom in and out. When you have the crop tool selected and a crop area engaged, you can't toggle to the zoom tool to zoom in on the edges of the selection to make sure they are correct, but you can use ctrl + to zoom in.

By 4walls (3 months ago)

On the Mac, use Option+scroll to do this.

By DavidKennard (3 months ago)

A few here I don't know, Temporary tools sounds like it will be quite useful for me. Thanks for sharing these tips.

By drh681 (3 months ago)

Shift the bracket keys to change the hardness of the brush edges.

By 4walls (3 months ago)

Didn't know that one with the shift key for the hardness. That is a good tip.

Pat Cullinan Jr
By Pat Cullinan Jr (3 months ago)

Visit Trevor Morris at morris-photographics.com/photoshop/shortcuts/index.html for pdf cheatsheets containing a plethora of PS keyboard shortcuts.

By RevelloPhotography (3 months ago)

I find it funny that this was posted the same day as the article about AP cutting someone for Photoshop.

1 upvote
By Misa (3 months ago)

I think this article is OK, I know how to use Photoshop since about 10 years and have little to learn from this one but remember neither of us was the last beginner, every moment there is somebody starting anything including learning image editing so it is form them.

Joe Mayer
By Joe Mayer (3 months ago)

I've been using photoshop for so long that I perform most of these shortcuts and more without even thinking. Anyone starting out, who processes a number of photos at a time or is under time constraints definitely needs to consider learning these and more. And don't be afraid to customize your shortcuts and you too, in the long run, will be saving time. And really, you don't need to be processing a lot of photos at a time. Even just a few here and there and you'll be surprised at how you'll have more time to shoot than spending it in front of your monitor. That's what we all want, isn't it?

By BobSC (3 months ago)

Here are some I use:

You can pick the eye-dropper tool by pressing "I". If you want the measure tool, you can press Shift-I (repeat as necessary) and it will cycle through all of the "I" tools.

I use the "wheel" on the wacom tablet to change brush size and the mouse wheel to zoom. That, and double-click the magnifier to go to 100% zoom and double-click the hand to see the whole image.

By TLD (3 months ago)

Some of the tools have Shift options never/rarely used, so I remove the shortcut from those tools so you can Shift toggle through the ones you use more quickly.

By 4walls (3 months ago)

How do you remove the ones you don't use?

Joachim Gerstl
By Joachim Gerstl (3 months ago)

Anyone still using Photoshop?

Ross Murphy
By Ross Murphy (3 months ago)

what do you think

By skytripper (3 months ago)

Dumbest question of the year by a wide margin.

By chadley_chad (3 months ago)

Hmmm. Ok, I guess yes?

By technotic (3 months ago)

I think only Scott Kelby still uses it.

Gionni Dorelli
By Gionni Dorelli (3 months ago)

I'm sorry to give you this new Joachim, but high end pro retouchers use only photoshop.

Steve Bingham
By Steve Bingham (3 months ago)

I simply set the scroll wheel to zoom in or out (preferences). Moving the mouse around to any area and scrolling the wheel I can instantly zoom in or out of that area. Works with a lot of the tools. I can't imagine anything faster.

Been around since Photoshop 1 (Mac) and 2.5 on PC. So there. :) Does it matter? NO

Comment edited 2 minutes after posting
By LiSkynden (3 months ago)

I was just gonna say the same. No need to press any keys or click any tools. Just scroll in/out.

1 upvote
By PeterBM (3 months ago)

Very useful, even if French keyboard is different.
But I don't catch Point 5. New Layer as history ???

By han47 (3 months ago)

Me neither, did you get an answer?

Ciao, Han

By thomaspark (3 months ago)

Point 5 is in regards to making a composite of your full layer stack. Imagine you're working on an image that has edits on several layers - maybe some adjustment layers as well as some raster edits - and you want to apply a filter to the whole thing. Filters generally affect a single layer. Therefore, you need to roll all of your changes up into a single layer and run your filter on that. The "merge stamp visible" shortcut does exactly this.

LMK if this makes sense!

By BenMcK (3 months ago)

As an enthusiast I recently bought PE11 to get the most out of my images through some editing, and to maximise the RAW files.

Trying to get the best end result in the shortest time is a constant challenge. I've found YouTube to be helpful as well as picking up some guide-type books.

I, for one, would welcome more articles on DPR around Photoshop techniques and time savers

Tungsten Nordstein
By Tungsten Nordstein (3 months ago)

6. Temporary Move Tool is Cmd (on the Mac)
7. Shift [ ] changes hardness
8. Shift J (in the case of the spot healing tool) steps through the other options.

Often the Shift or alt keys as modifiers with a short-cut are going to give you an extra level of control over a tool. Just try them.

Up and down arrows key change numerical values in number fields (when selected), Shift-up or down arrow changes same values in steps of 10.

The best time-saving tip is to read the short-cuts page regularly until you know them. And practice. Especially when it comes to tools you use frequently.

Comment edited 2 times, last edit 9 minutes after posting
1 upvote
By JF69 (3 months ago)

6: There exists a way to use numbers for Zero Opacity for a tool or layer. Type "0" twice in quick succession (do it when NOT using a tool that requires Opacity if you intend it for the layer)

By groucher (3 months ago)

"I keep one hand on the mouse or tablet stylus as much as possible, and use the other hand "

That says it all - you have to maintain an uncomfortable and awkward seated position because Adobe hasn't the nouse to write software that utilises the RH mouse control. Simple things such as just zooming in/out or setting clone point/cloning are a pain in Photo$hop. These can be done single handed in Corel - a particular advantage in cloning which needs precision.

Adobe needs a clip round the ear for producing expensive and antiquated software that can't even manage memory successfully. Try the Gimp, Corel and NX2 (the last for superior RAW processing if you're a Nikon user).

By itsastickup (3 months ago)

The Gimp and Corel are in no way real competition to Photoshop, simply on feature sets.

I've used both Gimp and Photoshop. The Gimp isn't even near Photoshop from 2005, let alone the latest.

Photoshop may have its flaws but it's nuts to suggest Gimp as an alternative.

By groucher (3 months ago)

The Gimp has similar functionality to CS3 (and some of its flaws) but of course is free. Corel has much more functionality than any version of Photo$hop, together with superior workflow and Color Efex Pro is included as a freeby - a very powerful combination.

People have been sucked in by Photo$hop as it's supposed to be the industry standard but there's far better out there now as is well illustrated by this article.

1 upvote
By fuego6 (3 months ago)

To each their own.. but I wouldn't trade Photoshop for Corel even if they gave it to me for free. GIMP? Meh... just can't get used to it.. for a cheap alternative, I highly recommend Zoner Photo to all newb's looking for an editor and much more.

By paqman (3 months ago)

was with corel psp for years, got tired of it crashing
went photoshop - hard learning curve, but worth it, and rock solid

By itsastickup (2 months ago)

"Corel has much more functionality than any version of Photo$hop, together with superior workflow and Color Efex Pro is included as a freeby - a very powerful combination.

People have been sucked in by Photo$hop as it's supposed to be the industry standard but there's far better out there now as is well illustrated by this article."

You've evidently not had much exposure to photoshop.

Tord S Eriksson
By Tord S Eriksson (3 months ago)

Well written, and informative!

I've also been around since Photoshop 3 as well, but I seldom use it any more!

My normal editing aid is Aperture, occasionally GIMP, and Lightroom. Have a few more specialist tools, but never use them!

I like the feel of the free — if you register yourself — Phocus, Hasselblad's own photo-editing software, but I am in no way a master of it!

By gohunter (3 months ago)

By far the best Photoshop tip I can give is to buy Lightroom. It will save you many, many hours. When I used to do wedding photography, Lightroom was a joy to use, with many hundreds of shots cropped, shadows lifted, etc. in an hour or two. In Photoshop, that used to take me many hours. I got some of my life back!

Of course there is one key factor. Concentrate on getting composition, exposure, etc. right before you click the shutter! That is something that a great many people forget to do. Then it costs them hours in Photoshop correcting things, because they should have been standing somewhere different, or had the camera set differently in the first place. One of the advantages of being brought up on film is that you learned to do that instinctively!

By JWest (3 months ago)

I couldn't agree more. For everyday uses, Lightroom is definitely the way to go. I still have to drop into Photoshop every now and again for heavy editing of a particularly important shot, but these occasions are pretty rare these days.

By fuego6 (3 months ago)

Agree as well.. though, I do wish Adobe would add some real layer controls to LR so we can have that much greater control and abandon the need to jump to PS even more.

By AlpCns2 (3 months ago)

Absolutely. Get it right in-camera as much as possible. Pre-processing!

1 upvote
By Zeisschen (3 months ago)

If I have a well composed shot using a good lens and nailed focus I never needed photoshop. I bit of cropping and lighting up the shadows is usually all I have to do. I won't spend more money on a software than on printing pictures. iPhoto and Aperture ist enough for me.

By gohunter (3 months ago)

Absolutely agree. FAR too much emphasis by the photo press and photographers put on the use of Photoshop. I very rarely use it. Get it right straight out of the camera, the way you had to do with film. Far too many people use the principle of taking far too many shots of the same thing from umpteen different angles these days. By far the best thing you can do to improve your photography is to think like you are using film and that every shot is costing you money.

Comment edited 49 seconds after posting
By JakeB (3 months ago)

Thanks for contributing to the discussion of techniques for Photoshop users.

If you think of Photoshop as an advanced dark room it might help you transition into the twenty-first century.

Comment edited 4 minutes after posting
1 upvote
Michael Hyza
By Michael Hyza (3 months ago)

7.Brush size you can do quicker with right mouse button + ALT together. Left/Right movement then change size of brush and Up/Down change hardness of brush. At least simple right mouse click open quick brush settings dialogue in place of your cursor. And you can quickly customize all parameters and brush type.

By AceP (3 months ago)

Michael - You da Man!!!!
I just tried doing it after twelve years of clicking the the left and right brackets and this method if FAR superior.

1 upvote
Mike Tussy
By Mike Tussy (3 months ago)

Wow. That is an awesome tip. I just tried it with clone, brush, healing tool and smudge and erase...works on all those in resizing tool...did not try it yet on the up down part. But I bet that works the same on these tools as well. Thanks a bunch for that one saves time and wrist movement.

1 upvote
By piratejabez (3 months ago)

For me (on a Mac) it's option+control+mouse click. Thanks! :)

By Shiranai (3 months ago)

Instead of the first 2 tips, I recommend setting your mousewheel as zoom.
Thats always the first thing I set up in photoshop, dunno why they didn't enable it as standard. You find it at preferences > general > zoom with scrollwheel.

By jvkelley (3 months ago)

I use CTRL + scroll wheel for zoom. It's pretty standard in many drawing programs

Sean Nelson
By Sean Nelson (3 months ago)

Scrubby zoom and temporary tools are terrific tips. Scrubby hand is too, but I already knew about that one. BTW scrubby hand works in a lot of other Adobe products too, such as Acrobat Reader.

Michael Ma
By Michael Ma (3 months ago)

After you get all the shortcuts down, what has saved me countless hours and my sanity is setting up a way to save as a copy with a hotkey with an different autogenerated file name.

You add an action (execution of a script) with a hotkey like F3 key that saves the jpeg file with a dynamic name (name automatically generated by the date and time).

This way, if all you need to do is drop a layer into an existing psd file, it saves the jpeg to the desktop with one keystroke, and it creates a new file every time. (no overwriting)

Wouldn't hitting F3 be better than:

selecting the save location
typing a filename
selecting jpeg as the filetype
hitting save
then hitting ok on the file quality

Maybe not as useful for people who edit a few files at most a day. But imagine you need to save a dozen or a few dozen variations of the same file every day.

By Dettie (2 months ago)

Hi Thomas . This is something I would benefit from. Can you please tell me how to set up the action in detail. It's the bit about the name change I don't get. Thank you

Steve Throndson
By Steve Throndson (3 months ago)

My brain hurts now, but thank you very much for this tutorial. I've learned a few new tricks today.

I'm sure most people know this one - but if you hold down the 'Alt' key while adjusting the shadow and highlight sliders in 'Levels', you can see what's being clipped.

Lee Jay
By Lee Jay (3 months ago)

By far the biggest thing that sped up my Photoshop workflow was to start using Lightroom instead. I now use Elements instead of CS, for the 1 of 1,000 images that need some pixel-editing. But tip 2 (space bar for drag) works in Lightroom as well.

And the bonus? Both have perpetual licenses, and likely will for the foreseeable future.

Comment edited 1 minute after posting
John C Tharp
By John C Tharp (3 months ago)

It needed to be said; after learning Lightroom, the thought of using Photoshop for regular editing twists my brain. It's there if I need it for that 1 in 1,000, sure, but there's something to be said about using the right tool for the job!

Comment edited 25 seconds after posting
1 upvote
By LowellTyler (3 months ago)

Regarding the Opacity tip (item 6), you absolutely can choose 0% by quickly pressing zero twice (00), just as you would with any other two-digit opacity (eg. 75). Try it!

1 upvote
By vadims (3 months ago)

The single most useful tip would be How to get off subscription...

By BaldCol (3 months ago)


By vadims (3 months ago)

Ah, Bald "ALL CAPS" Col, I knew you'd show up here.

No time to yawn, my friend. Please go ahead, tell us that we can stop using Photoshop whenever we want, and should not even start using it if we do not like it.

I am quite sure there are lots of lost souls in here who do not understand all those obvious things, and whom you can still save if only you employ a fraction of your usual passion...

By BaldCol (3 months ago)

I belive I have only used All Caps for 4 words in one post ever. Feel free to go back through my posts and prove me wrong if you want.

Comment edited 17 seconds after posting
By OliverGlass (3 months ago)

Thank you for this. We learn something new everyday from different pros.

1 upvote
By l_d_allan (3 months ago)


BTW, the article title is clearly about "Photoshop Tips". It assumes you are using PS, especially to do relatively advanced p.p. that is beyond LR or ACR. Too bad some repliers get OT with more or less irrelevant comparisons to alternatives and PS bashing.

FWIW: I've bookmarked Mr. Park's website to take a look at it when time allows, and hopefully pick up more guidance and useful tips.

Comment edited 2 minutes after posting
1 upvote
Peter Vancoillie
By Peter Vancoillie (3 months ago)

I was hoping to read something more dedicated. These are very common and general tips which I'm already using and tons more. Learning shortcut keys for the tools and functions I need most is what I do first when I learn new software.

1 upvote
Alan Brown
By Alan Brown (3 months ago)

perhaps we can learn something from you then?

Total comments: 88